Class 10 Important Questions Social Science History Chapter 4

Class 10 Important Questions Social Science History Chapter 4 |The Making of a Global World

Q1 . Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century , choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas . 

Ans . From Asia :--

( i ) Chinese silk cargoes used to travel through the silk routes . 

( ii ) Later Chinese pottery , textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia also travelled through these routes . 

( iii ) In return , precious metals - gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia . 

( iv ) For centuries before , the Indian Ocean had known a vibrant trade with goods , people , knowledge , customs , etc. 

( v ) Silk routes helped in linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa . 

( vi ) Buddhism which emerged from eastern India also spread in several directions through interconnecting points on the silk routes only . 

From the Americas :--

( i ) America's vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere from the 16th century . 

( ii ) Precious metals , particularly silver , from mines located in present day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe's wealth and financed its trade with Asia . 

Q2 . Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre - modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas . 

Ans . ( 1 ) By the mid - sixteenth century Europe defeated America not with military power but they ( Americans ) got killed due to the germs of smallpox brought by Europeans with them . 

( ii ) America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years . As America's original inhabitants were living in isolation for long , they had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe.

iii ) Smallpox proved to be a deadly Killer for them . It spread deep into the continent , killed and devastated the whole community , thus paving the way for European conquest . 

Class 10 Important Questions Social Science History Chapter 4

Q3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following :

( a )The British government's decision to abolish the Corn Law.

( b )The coming of rinderpest to Africa.

( c ) The death of men of working - age in Europe because of the World War.

( d ) The Great Depression on the Indian economy. 

( e )The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries .

Ans . ( a )The British government finally abolished the Corn Laws which brought a lot of changes in the British economy : 

( i ) Food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.

 ( ii) British agriculture failed to compete with imports .

 ( iii) Vast areas of land were left uncultivated . 

 ( iv ) Thousands of men and women became unemployed. 

 ( v )This led to migration of people to the cities or overseas .


( b ) Rinderpest ( a fast spreading disease of cattle plague ) arrived in Africa in the late 1880s . It had a terrifying impact on people's livelihoods and the local economy . It started in East Africa and soon spread to the other parts of the continent . In 1892 , it reached Africa's Atlantic coast and within five years it reached the Cape ( Africa's southernmost tip ) . It spread through an infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.

Effects of rinderpest on Africans Rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle . 

( i ) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods . 

( ii ) It strengthened colonial government's power and Africans were forced into the labour market which earlier they were reluctant to do due to abundance of land and livestock .

( iii ) European colonisers thus conquered and subdued Africa . 

C ( i ) The First World War was the first modern industrial war . It saw the use of machine guns , tanks , aircraft , chemical weapons , etc. 

( ii ) Millions of soldiers had to be recruited from around the world and moved to the frontlines on large ships and trains . The scale of death and destruction was beyond imagination.

( iii ) Most of the killed and maimed were men of working age . These deaths and injuries reduced the able - bodied workforce in Europe with fewer members within the family , household incomes declined after the war . 

( iv ) Since men went to battle , women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do . The war led to the snapping of economic links between some of the world's largest economic powers which were now fighting for each other to pay for them . 

( v ) So , Britain borrowed large sums of money from US banks as well as the US public . Thus , the war transformed the US from being an international debtor than international creditor.

( d ) in the nineteenth century , colonial India had become an exporter of agricultural woods and importer of manufactures . The reat depression immediately affected Iridian trade.

( i )India's export and importa nearly halved between 1028 ard 1934. 

( ii ) As international prices crashed , prices in India also plunged . Between 1928 & 1934, wheat price in India fell by 50 percent.

( iii ) Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers . Though agricultural prices fell sharply , the coloral government refused to reduce Revenue demands . Pensants producing for the world market were the worst hit . Across India , peasants indebtedness increased . However , the depression proved less grim for urban India.

( e )The relocation of industry to low - wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flow . In the Inst two decades , the world's economie geography has been transformed as countries such as India , China and Brazil have undergone rapid economie transformation.

Class 10 Important Questions Social Science History Chapter 4

Q4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability. 

Ans .( i )Faster railways , lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets . 

( ii )The development of refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances . Animals were now slaughtered for food at the starting point ( America , Australia or New Zealand ) and then transported to Europe as frozen meat . This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe . The poor in Europe could now add meat to their diet Better living conditions and nutritious diet promoted social peace.

Q5 . What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?

Ans .( i )In order to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world , the post - war international economic system was established . To execute the same , the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire , USA ( ii ) The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) to deal with external surpluses and shortages of its member nations . 

( iii )The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development popularly known as the World Bank was set up to finance post - war reconstruction and they started the financial operations in 1947 . 

( iv ) Decision - making authority was given to the Western industrial powers . The US was given the right of veto over key IMF and World Bank decisions .

( v ) The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates . The Bretton Woods system opened an era of unique growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan World trade grew annually. 


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